In 2001, passenger cars operated by the Ministry of Communications on lines with a file length of more than 400km must be high-grade passenger cars equipped with toilets. Because of the long distance of long-distance passenger transport on the roads and the short stop time on the way, it is extremely necessary to add on-board toilets for passenger cars.
In modern passenger cars, the choice of on-board toilets is affected by factors such as the vehicle's space volume, operating speed, and environment. At the same time, under the constraints of national environmental protection, health management and health and other related laws and regulations, the design of passenger car toilets must take into account various factors. Like environmental pollution such as water, gas, sound and slag, passenger car toilets have the same problem of pollution on long-distance passenger transport. In-line manure causes pollution to the atmosphere, water environment, road surface and soil. Measures to install long-distance buses to install on-board toilets have been widely used in the products of Pingxiang Bus Factory of the Company.
4 Application of Chassis Centralized Lubrication System Advantages and Values â€‹â€‹While high-speed passenger transport and urban passenger transport have been accepted by the public with their speed and convenience, how can owners achieve maximum economic benefits and minimum maintenance costs for their own vehicles? It is reported that a vehicle equipped with a chassis auto-lubrication system has a mileage increase of 45,000 km per vehicle compared to a vehicle with an old-style grease nozzle lubricated. The chassis overhaul is extended by 24 cycles and the total service life is extended. 4.5 times, this indicates that it is imperative to install the impact on the environment as soon as possible to change the direct or indirect discharge of waste from the passenger car toilets over the years. Therefore, the research and development of the passenger vehicle toilet system has a high social, economic and environmental significance.
1 Development and status quo of domestic and foreign passenger car vehicle toilets 1.1 Development of foreign vehicle toilets In order to avoid pollution of highway environment caused by passenger car defecation, all countries in the world have actively researched and developed new types of car toilets to replace traditional straight-through toilets. U.S. has developed passenger car collecting devices earlier in time and in many forms, mainly including chemical, incineration, biological treatment, filtration and disinfection, electrode sterilization and discharge, and chemical treatment circulation.
Japan began to develop storage toilets for passenger trains in 1960, and gradually increased the vehicle out-put rate of auto-lubrication systems in the chassis. The annual maintenance cost of chassis bicycles saved an average of about 0.3 million yuan per vehicle, and one chassis was installed. The cost of centrally lubricated system vehicles can be recovered within 1.5 years of its conservation and maintenance costs. This does not include the incalculable social benefits resulting from the increase in economic benefits and safety and reliability brought about by higher vehicle output rates.
Hand-flooding is generally stipulated once every three months to six months. During this period, iron scraps, etc. that have been worn down have been in the friction pair. The presence of such iron filings intensifies wear and causes a vicious circle. Moreover, the manual dispersion of oil is a manual operation. During the injection of oil, omissions and omissions of the oil injection points often occur. The lubrication points are exposed to air trains. Due to the large amount of flushing water in toilets, large amounts of stored water, and frequent cleaning, the use rate of vehicles was affected. After 1969, it was gradually converted into a circulating toilet.
The main forms of German passenger car sealed toilets are: pressure water flushing, circulating water flushing and vacuum toilets, and the vacuum type is divided into two types: vacuum suction type and vacuum type with biological function.
At present, various types of vehicle-mounted toilets in various countries have various forms and novel methods, and many toilets have been widely used in other transportation areas, including railways, aviation, and navigation. However, these toilets also have many problems such as inconvenience in use or restricted use, high cost, and difficulty in disposal of excrement.
1.2 Status Quo of China's On-Board Toilets At present, internationally more advanced passenger car toilets have not been developed in China and have been covered with mud and dust around the nozzles. This will more or less be able to add sediment when refueling. The injection of oil into the friction pair causes early wear of the friction pair and shortens the life of the part. The centralized lubrication system of the chassis is a completely closed combination. Its regular quantification and cleanliness make the friction secondary oil film continuously replaced by the new clean oil film, reducing friction and wear, thus determining the durability of the parts and ensuring the entire Increased vehicle performance.
In short, the economic benefits from the use of a centralized lubrication system for the chassis are obvious, and its one-time investment can be recovered in a very short period of time by the cost saved by vehicle maintenance.
Parts of the bus vacuum toilet system work principle diagrams use the pressure water, on the one hand to ensure the pressure necessary for flushing, can be completely clean and flush the toilet on the other hand can save water to achieve the purpose of saving water.
2.2 Technical indicators) The degree of vacuum in the collecting chamber shall be maintained.) The national discharge standard for the water consumption of the flushing toilet shall be 85dB. It shall withstand a certain impact.
2.3 Technical Keys and Solutions 2.3.1 Maintaining the vacuum level in the collecting chamber By vacuuming the excrement, the degree of vacuum in the collecting chamber is the key factor. The degree of vacuum is too small, the atmospheric pressure acting on the dirt up and down is not enough, it may result in weak suction, prolonged time, and even pumping cannot be completed during working hours, leaving the residual dirt in the toilet. The degree of vacuum is too large, and the atmospheric pressure exerted by the dirt up and down is large, and the suction is formed too quickly. When the mixed sewage of feces and sewage rapidly flows through the pipeline, large noise and vibration are formed. At the same time, during the working hours, the suction is completed too quickly, and a large amount of air will immediately enter the collection box, which will reduce the degree of vacuum inside the box and may cause the next suction to fail.
The experiment shows that the vacuum dimension in the collection box is better and the pumping can be completed successfully in 3s. Therefore, in the design, use the vacuum electric pressure gauge to control the vacuum degree in the chamber. When the vacuum pump starts working, when the vacuum pressure gauge measures the vacuum level in the collecting chamber to 0.05 MPa, the vacuum pump is cut off and the suction is stopped. If the vacuum degree in the box is lower than 0.03 MPa after use, the vacuum pressure gauge will turn on the vacuum pump motor and the vacuum pump will start again, forming a working cycle to ensure the stability of the vacuum degree in the box.
application. Most of the long-distance buses in China use direct or indirect straight-line toilets. While many long-distance coaches do not even have toilets, passengers can only stop at the station or use the toilet at the station.
Indirect direct-flow toilets are installed on the toilets under the on-vehicle toilets. During the operation, the stools are flushed into the collection bins. The vehicles are then discharged into the sewage disposal system of the inspection station after the vehicles arrive at the inspection station. Although centralized emissions are simple, there are many disadvantages.
There are few spaces on the long-distance buses, and the toilets are narrow. The size of the toilets and the clean water tanks carried by the coaches are limited, thus restricting the use of toilets. For example, many passenger cars are prohibited from bowing on the way. In addition, the domestic automotive toilets use gravity flushing, the technology is relatively backward, waste of water is serious, and the amount of water stored on buses is limited, and toilet use is even more inconvenient.
2 After a lot of research on passenger car vacuum toilets, we designed a long-distance bus vacuum toilet system. The system uses vacuum negative pressure to suck fecal matter, connect it to the toilet outlet through a delivery pipe, and suck the feces into the collection box. Because it replaced the traditional gravity water flush with negative pressure suction, water acts mainly as a lubricated wall, which greatly reduces the amount of water used, and collects the feces at the same time, facilitating the centralized treatment. As less water is used, the utilization rate of fresh water is increased, and the manure is pumped by the negative pressure. It is not easy to block the pipeline, and the odor does not leak. It does not affect the external environment. The entire system is tightly sealed, hygienic and safe.
2.1 Working principle See the system working principle diagram.
System working process After the car runs, the vacuum pump starts and the collection box is vacuumed through the pipeline. The vacuum value is displayed by the vacuum pressure gauge. When the user flushes the toilet, he presses the flushing switch, the control circuit starts the electromagnetic water valve, and the flushing system of the toilet is opened, and the flushing is stopped after 35 seconds. Then, the control circuit activates the electromagnetic pneumatic valve and opens the outlet gate of the toilet. After the gate valve is opened, it is connected with the collecting box. Under the vacuum negative pressure in the box, the feces dirt in the toilet is sucked into the box and pumped. The process takes about 12s. After the suction is completed, the gate valve is closed immediately to prevent vacuum leakage. This completes a work cycle. The entire flushing process is controlled in about 5s.
When the user needs to wash his/her hand, he/she touches the hand-washing switch and the control circuit will start another 'electromagnetic valve'. The tap water will be discharged. The water outlet time is controlled by the electromagnetic relay, and the water is stopped after about 5 seconds. The washing cycle is completed.
The system tank is connected to the high-pressure gas source on the car, and the high-pressure gas is used to pressurize the water. Instead of the water pump, the pressure is controlled by the pressure regulator to control the amount of water. Toilet flushing water and hand-washing water 2.3.2 Collecting the degree of vacuum in the toilet box Frequently drawing the feces causes a large vacuum consumption in the collecting chamber, so that the vacuum pump needs to be repeatedly started to maintain a proper vacuum degree. The vacuum pump works frequently, on the one hand it will cause the waste of electrical energy, on the other hand it may damage the motor and cause the whole system to fail to work. The solution is to increase the negative pressure energy storage tank, and an additional set of energy storage tanks can be connected in series with the collection tank. Each time the vacuum pump pumps the collection tank and the energy storage tank to the working vacuum level, the negative pressure consumed by each suction can be replenished by the energy storage tank, thereby maintaining the stability of the entire system pressure.
Since the advantages of vacuum toilets are reflected in water-saving, the control of flushing water volume is particularly critical.
Compared with traditional gravity flushing, each vacuum flushing toilet does not exceed 0.8L. It is the design of gravity flushing that uses high-pressure gas on the car to pressurize the clean water. Instead of the traditional water pump, it not only reduces the power consumption, but also reduces the cost. The experiment confirmed (see Table 1) that when the clean water tank reached 23 atmospheres, the flushing effect was better. Under 2 atmospheric pressures, flushing for 3s, the amount of water consumed by toilets 2.3.4 Less noise pollution Atmospheric pressure When the atmosphere enters the negative pressure pipeline, the speed is faster, it will form a large bending vibration, radiate strong structural noise, sometimes row Gas noise is above 80dB. According to the national noise emission standards, noise above 85dB must be taken to reduce noise, and long-distance buses are relatively quiet and stable while driving, and excessive noise will also affect passengers. In order to reduce noise pollution, soundproofing is applied on the outside of the vacuum pipeline to reduce the structural vibration and noise, and a muffler is added at the outlet of the high pressure gas to achieve noise reduction.
2.3.5 The anti-vibration capability of the electrical components and the vibration of the vibration-isolating vehicle will cause dynamic deformation and dynamic attraction of the electrical components. These deformations will cause mechanical fatigue and damage of the components, shorten the service life of the components, and even cause malfunction. Therefore, the electrical components used must be tested for vibration resistance and vibration isolation to ensure their proper operation.
3 Conclusion Long-distance bus car vacuum toilet integrated design will be combined with the market, the shell is made of injection molding, installation of toilet bowl, trash, ventilation fan, deodorant, hand basin, mirror, hand dryer and lighting system, reasonable layout, space Can be fully utilized. It can adapt to all the requirements of domestic long-distance passenger car toilets, and all products can be localized, with low cost and easy maintenance.
Vehicle-mounted vacuum toilets are compatible with the concept of environmental protection and are widely adapted. They can be used not only on long-distance buses, but also on trains, ships and planes. At present, the system has been installed, commissioned and meets expected technical requirements. We strive to improve and improve as soon as possible to create a comfortable and comfortable environment for passengers in order to change the status quo of our passenger bus operations.
From now on, the Ministry of Construction's Science and Technology Committee Committee for Urban Vehicles Experts, the China Urban Public Transportation Association Science and Technology Sub-Council, and the "Urban Vehicles" magazine will be relocated to the new location and office. The following changes will be made: Room 839, Block A, Huatong Building, No. 19A Xigong Road West, Beijing Postcode: 100044 Scientific and Technical Sub-committee, China Urban Public Transportation Association Address: No. 19A, West Road, Chegongzhuang, Beijing Address: 68414610 â€œUrban Vehiclesâ€ magazine address: Beijing Room 831, Building A, Huatong Building, No. 19 Gongzhuang West Road Zip Code: 100044
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